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Altaf Shaikh

BE Engg | Python Dev | Content Writer | Founder of TeachMeBro | Blockchain Dev | Django

Python Data Types

January 13th 2020   1051

Python Built-In Data Types
Python Built-In Data Types

Built-in Data Types

The data stored in memory can be of many types. For example, a person's age is stored as a numeric value and his or her address is stored as alphanumeric characters. Python has various built-in data types that are used to define the operations possible on them and the storage method for each of them.

  • In programming, data type is an important concept.
  • Variables can store data of different types, and different types can do different things.

Python has the following built-in data types :

Text Type:     str
Numeric Types:     intfloatcomplex
Sequence Types:     listtuplerange
Mapping Type:     dict
Set Types:     setfrozenset
Boolean Type:      bool
Binary Types:     bytesbytearraymemoryview

Mutable and Immutable Objects

Not all python objects handle changes the same way. Some objects are mutable, meaning they can be altered.  Others are immutable; they cannot be changed but rather return new objects when attempting to update. A mutable object can change its state or contents and immutable objects cannot.

Mutable objects:

  • list
  • dict
  • set
  • bytearray
  • user-defined classes (unless specifically made immutable)

Immutable objects:

  • int
  • float
  • complex
  • bool
  • string
  • tuple
  • range
  • frozenset (immutable version of set)
  • bytes

int (signed integers)

They are often called just integers or ints. They are positive or negative whole numbers with no decimal point. Integers in Python 3 are of unlimited size. Python 2 has two integer types - int and long. There is no 'long integer' in Python 3 anymore.

float (floating point real values)

Also called floats, they represent real numbers and are written with a decimal point dividing the integer and the fractional parts. Floats may also be in scientific notation, with E or e indicating the power of 10 (2.5e2 = 2.5 x 102 = 250).

complex (complex numbers)

Are of the form a + bJ, where a and b are floats and J (or j) represents the square root of -1 (which is an imaginary number). The real part of the number is a, and the imaginary part is b. Complex numbers are not used much in Python programming.
A complex number consists of an ordered pair of real floating-point numbers denoted by a + bj, where a is the real part and b is the imaginary part of the complex number.

Data type conversion

There are several built-in functions to perform conversion from one data type to another. These functions return a new object representing the converted value.

  • abs(): Returns absolute value of a number
  • ascii(): Returns String Containing Printable Representation
  • bin(): Converts integer to binary string
  • bool(): Coverts a Value to Boolean
  • bytes(): Returns immutable bytes object
  • chr(): Returns a Character (a string) from an Integer
  • complex(real [,imag]): Creates a complex number
  • dict(d): Creates a dictionary. d must be a sequence of (key,value) tuples
  • float(x): Converts x to a floating-point number
  • hash(): Returns hash value of an object
  • hex(): Converts to Integer to Hexadecimal
  • int(x [,base]): Converts x to an integer. The base specifies the base if x is a string
  • list(s): Converts s to a list
  • oct(): Converts integer to octal
  • repr(x): Converts object x to an expression string
  • round(): Rounds a floating point number to n digits places.
  • set(s): Converts s to a set
  • str(x): Converts object x to a string representation
  • tuple(s): Converts s to a tuple

Python Built-in Functions

  • all(): Returns true when all elements in iterable is true
  • any(): Checks if any Element of an Iterable is True
  • bytearray(): Returns array of given byte size
  • callable(): Checks if the Object is Callable
  • classmethod(): Returns class method for given function
  • compile(): Returns a Python code object
  • delattr(): Deletes Attribute From the Object
  • dir(): Tries to Return Attributes of Object
  • divmod(): Returns a Tuple of Quotient and Remainder
  • enumerate(): Returns an Enumerate Object
  • eval(): Runs Python Code Within Program
  • exec(): Executes Dynamically Created Program
  • filter(): Constructs iterator from elements which are true
  • format(): Returns formatted representation of a value
  • frozenset(): Returns immutable frozenset object
  • getattr(): Returns value of named attribute of an object
  • globals(): Returns dictionary of current global symbol table
  • hasattr(): Returns whether object has named attribute
  • help(): Invokes the built-in Help System
  • id(): Returns Identify of an Object
  • input(): Reads and returns a line of string
  • isinstance(): Checks if a Object is an Instance of Class
  • issubclass(): Checks if a Object is Subclass of a Class
  • iter(): Returns iterator for an object
  • len(): Returns Length of an Object
  • locals(): Returns dictionary of current local symbol table
  • map(): Applies Function and Returns a List
  • max(): Returns largest element
  • memoryview(): Returns memory view of an argument
  • min(): Returns smallest element
  • next(): Retrieves Next Element from Iterator
  • object(): Creates a Featureless Object
  • open(): Returns a File object
  • ord(): Returns Unicode code point for Unicode character
  • pow(): Returns x to the power of y
  • print(): Prints the Given Object
  • property(): Returns a property attribute
  • range(): Return sequence of integers between start and stop
  • reversed(): Returns reversed iterator of a sequence
  • setattr(): Sets value of an attribute of object
  • slice(): Creates a slice object specified by range()
  • sorted(): Returns sorted list from a given iterable
  • staticmethod(): Creates static method from a function
  • sum(): Add items of an Iterable
  • super(): Allow you to Refer Parent Class by super
  • type(): Returns Type of an Object
  • vars(): Returns dict attribute of a class
  • zip(): Returns an Iterator of Tuples

Let's checkout the example:

We will see a program to convert a given number into its equivalent binary number in python.